Today, Knowledge Management today are not limited merely to : (A) 'knowing' or 'reading lots of books/scholarly articles' or (B) data mining, analysis, decision making, preventive actions, or (C) some Human Resources Management issue or (D) some ICT issue. Knowledge Management is about putting your knowledge, skills and competency into practice and most important IT WORKS! For you and your company or your business (Nik Zafri)

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Email: nikzafri@yahoo.com, nikzafri@gmail.com

Kelantanese, Alumni of Sultan Ismail College Kelantan (SICA), Diploma (Management), IT Competency Cert, Certified Written English Professional US. Has participated in many seminars/conferences (local/ international) in the capacity of trainer/lecturer and participant.

Affiliations :- Council Member of Gerson Lehrman Group NY, Institute of Quality Malaysia, Malaysian Institute of Management, Malaysian Occupational Safety and Health Professionals Association, Auditor ISO 9000 IRCAUK, Auditor OHSAS 18000 (SIRIM and STS) /EMS ISO 14000:2004 and Construction Quality Assessment System (CONQUAS, CIDB (Now BCA) Singapore),

* Possesses 26 years of experience/hands-on in the multi-modern management & technical disciplines (systems & methodologies) such as Knowledge Management (Hi-Impact Management/ICT Solutions), Quality (TQM/ISO), Safety Health Environment, Civil & Building (Construction), Manufacturing, Motivation & Team Building, HR, Marketing/Branding, Business Process Reengineering, Economy/Stock Market, Contracts/Project Management, Finance & Banking, etc. He was employed to international bluechips involving in national/international megaprojects such as Balfour Beatty Construction/Knight Piesold & Partners UK, MMI Insurance Group Australia, Hazama Corporation (Hazamagumi) Japan (with Mitsubishi Corporation, JA Jones US, MMCE and Ho-Hup) and Sunway Construction Berhad (The Sunway Group of Companies). Among major projects undertaken : Pergau Hydro Electric Project, KLCC Petronas Twin Towers, LRT Tunnelling, KLIA, Petronas Refineries Melaka, Putrajaya Government Complex, Sistem Lingkaran Lebuhraya Kajang (SILK), Mex Highway, KLIA1, KLIA2 etc. Once serviced SMPD Management Consultants as Associate Consultant cum Lecturer for Diploma in Management, Institute of Supervisory Management UK/SMPD JV. Currently – Associate/Visiting Consultants/Facilitators, Advisors for leading consulting firms (local and international) including project management. To name a few – Noma SWO Consult, Amiosh Resources, Timur West Consultant Sdn. Bhd., TIJ Consultants Group (Malaysia and Singapore) and many others.

* Ex-Resident Weekly Columnist of Utusan Malaysia (1995-1998) and have produced more than 100 articles related to ISO-9000– Management System and Documentation Models, TQM Strategic Management, Occupational Safety and Health (now OHSAS 18000) and Environmental Management Systems ISO 14000. His write-ups/experience has assisted many students/researchers alike in module developments based on competency or academics and completion of many theses. Once commended by the then Chief Secretary to the Government of Malaysia for his diligence in promoting and training the civil services (government sector) based on “Total Quality Management and Quality Management System ISO-9000 in Malaysian Civil Service – Paradigm Shift Scalar for Assessment System”

Among Nik Zafri’s clients : Adabi Consumer Industries Sdn. Bhd, (MRP II, Accounts/Credit Control) The HQ of Royal Customs and Excise Malaysia (ISO 9000), Veterinary Services Dept. Negeri Sembilan (ISO 9000), The Institution of Engineers Malaysia (Aspects of Project Management – KLCC construction), Corporate HQ of RHB (Peter Drucker's MBO/KRA), NEC Semiconductor - Klang Selangor (Productivity Management), Prime Minister’s Department Malaysia (ISO 9000), State Secretarial Office Negeri Sembilan (ISO 9000), Hidrological Department KL (ISO 9000), Asahi Kluang Johor(System Audit, Management/Supervisory Development), Tunku Mahmood (2) Primary School Kluang Johor (ISO 9000), Consortium PANZANA (HSSE 3rd Party Audit), Lecturer for Information Technology Training Centre (ITTC) – Authorised Training Center (ATC) – University of Technology Malaysia (UTM) Kluang Branch Johor, Kluang General Hospital Johor (Management/Supervision Development, Office Technology/Administration, ISO 9000 & Construction Management), Kahang Timur Secondary School Johor (ISO 9000), Sultan Abdul Jalil Secondary School Kluang Johor (Islamic Motivation and Team Building), Guocera Tiles Industries Kluang Johor (EMS ISO 14000), MNE Construction (M) Sdn. Bhd. Kota Tinggi Johor (ISO 9000 – Construction), UITM Shah Alam Selangor (Knowledge Management/Knowledge Based Economy /TQM), Telesystem Electronics/Digico Cable(ODM/OEM for Astro – ISO 9000), Sungai Long Industries Sdn. Bhd. (Bina Puri Group) - ISO 9000 Construction), Secura Security Printing Sdn. Bhd,(ISO 9000 – Security Printing) ROTOL AMS Bumi Sdn. Bhd & ROTOL Architectural Services Sdn. Bhd. (ROTOL Group) – ISO 9000 –Architecture, Bond M & E (KL) Sdn. Bhd. (ISO 9000 – Construction/M & E), Skyline Telco (M) Sdn. Bhd. (Knowledge Management),Technochase Sdn. Bhd JB (ISO 9000 – Construction), Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia (IKIM – ISO 9000 & Internal Audit Refresher), Shinryo/Steamline Consortium (Petronas/OGP Power Co-Generation Plant Melaka – Construction Management and Safety, Health, Environment), Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Negotiation Skills), Association for Retired Intelligence Operatives of Malaysia (Cyber Security – Arpa/NSFUsenet, Cobit, Till, ISO/IEC ISMS 27000 for Law/Enforcement/Military), T.Yamaichi Corp. (M) Sdn. Bhd. (EMS ISO 14000) LSB Manufacturing Solutions Sdn. Bhd., (Lean Scoreboard (including a full development of System-Software-Application - MSC Malaysia & Six Sigma) PJZ Marine Services Sdn. Bhd., (Safety Management Systems and Internal Audit based on International Marine Organization Standards) UNITAR/UNTEC (Degree in Accountacy – Career Path/Roadmap) Cobrain Holdings Sdn. Bhd.(Managing Construction Safety & Health), Speaker for International Finance & Management Strategy (Closed Conference), Pembinaan Jaya Zira Sdn. Bhd. (ISO 9001:2008-Internal Audit for Construction Industry & Overview of version 2015), Straits Consulting Engineers Sdn. Bhd. (Full Integrated Management System – ISO 9000, OHSAS 1800 and EMS ISO 14000 for Civl/Structural/Geotechnical Consulting), Malaysia Management & Science University (MSU – (Managing Business in an Organization), Innoseven Sdn. Bhd. (KVMRT Line 1 MSPR8 – Awareness and Internal Audit (Construction), ISO 9001:2008 and 2015 overview for the Construction Industry), Kemakmuran Sdn. Bhd. (KVMRT Line 1 - Signages/Wayfinding - Project Quality Plan and Construction Method Statement ), Amiosh Resources - (1) Lembaga Tabung Haji - Flood ERP (2) WNA Consultants - DID/JPS -Flood Risk Assessment and Management Plan - Prelim, Conceptual Design, Interim and Final Report etc. (3) Tunnel Fire Safety - Fire Risk Assessment Report - Design Fire Scenario), Safety, Health and Environmental Management Plans leading construction/property companies/corporations in Malaysia. Timur West Consulting (1) Business Methodology and System (2) Information Security Management Systems (ISMS) ISO/IEC 27001:2013 for Majlis Bandaraya Petaling Jaya ISMS/Audit/Risk/ITP Technical Team

* Has appeared for 10 consecutive series in “Good Morning Malaysia RTM TV1’ Corporate Talk Segment discussing on ISO 9000/14000 in various industries. For ICT, his inputs garnered from his expertise have successfully led to development of work-process e-enabling systems in the environments of intranet, portal and interactive web design especially for the construction and manufacturing. Some of the end products have won various competitions of innovativeness, quality, continual-improvements and construction industry award at national level. He has also in advisory capacity – involved in development and moderation of websites, portals and e-profiles for mainly corporate and private sectors, public figures etc. He is also one of the recipients for MOSTE Innovation for RFID use in Electronic Toll Collection in Malaysia.

Note :



Tuesday, August 04, 2009


I suppose most of us nationwide is aware of the KPI and KRA especially those who have heard about YAB PM recently announced.

So I like you all to take a bit of time to read the following and be alert on my 'cooking of management phrases'

Let's go to the Key Results Areas first (KRA). KRA was born from Management by Objective (MBO) concept introduced by Peter Drucker in 1954. I think KRA is not really part from MBO but rather an evolution to clarify Objectives and Goals better.

(Via a consulting firm in 1997, I was one of the accredited MBO consultant for few Banking and Financial Institutions)

To make it simple - I will explain briefly what to expect from MBO.

It has a Mission Statement then Objectives, Goals and finally Key Result Areas (KRA). Hmm how to put it huh? Ok...input and output hence Productivity was born together with Benchmarking.

The then PM, Honourable Tun Dr. Mahathir introduced the 'Participative Management Concept' via the Look East Policy somewhere around 1982 and the rest is history (Malaysian Incorporated, Privatization, Proton Saga and so on) The participative management is part of what we commonly know as Total Quality Management (TQM) where among others it promote teamwork, bottom-up management, QCC Tools, Small Group Activities (SGA), Six Sigma, human capital, PLAN-DO-CHECK-ACT (PDCA) etc.

The participative management concept has evolutionized MBO further which I also believe the reason for KRA to exist so that it would be on 'mutual consent' basis between the 'setter' and the 'implementer'.

Back to MBO, conceptually speaking, the only thing that may not be measurable is the Mission Statement (although some put 'to become 'x' in 'x' years' while the rest are ALL measurable - be it Objective, Goals and KRA. 'Objectives' in MBO are key strategies to achieve the Mission Statement. Goals in MBO are 'short term objectives' to achieve Main 'Objectives'.

At the micro level (immediately after Goals) KRA is the output expected within a certain period of time.

The art of measuring is also known as 'Benchmarking' (get it?)

In Human Resources, MBO/KRA facilitates the formation of Job Descriptions, Performance Indicators (also related to KPI) and Responsibilities/Authorities.

Objectives and Goals are measured using % where they are being prioritized by a 'brainstorming' session (SGA/QCC) But the numbers of Objectives and Goals may not be the same. Example - One Objective may require two different goals. KRA is considered as the output which will determine the success implementation and continual improvment of Goals and Objectives (cascading principle)

ISO 9000 also has a similar concept known as Department/Unit Objectives which are also 'measureable'.

However most people argued with me that it should also be 'achievable' (although it does not SAY "achievable" in the ISO clause) I disagreed because the 'achievable' may also depend on the scope of work of a business entity.

Say for example, the Department Objective of a 'construction division' is

"to reduce 'x' wastages to...say...3% per 6 months"

What arguers don't see is that :

a) this relates to the value and magnitude of the project itself and
b) the quantity surveyor/purchaser buying 'buffer stock' - just in case

I asked the 'arguers' - what if the contractor gained a bigger project?

The 3% need to be reviewed as it may be TOO MUCH to achieve (for a bigger project) - it should be reduced to 2% but the implementers must justify why it is being reduced. Agreed? (so the arguers now are now my supporters)

So this reviewal or adjustment or ALIGNMENT is also known as BALANCE SCORECARD. (more confused you are all I guess - not to worry - I'm almost finished) Balance Scorecard is part of Strategic Planning and Management popularized by Kaplan (of Harvard) and David Norton. The purpose is to ALIGN activities to the organizational 'vision and strategy', improve communication breakdowns (also in ISO as well), and monitor organization performance against strategic goals (also in Objectives & Goals of MBO) It is to give the implementers a more 'balanced' view of organizational performance. (see ISO's Data Analysis + Quality Cost below)

Again, ISO 9000 concept of Objectives are also based on MBO/KRA as well. But the good thing that we can adopt from ISO is that there is an activity call the 'Data Analysis' for Action Plans/Continual Improvement (not only having statistics and do not know what to do with it) Here's something for all the readers/decision makers to think before you leap :

In Data Analysis, you have number of non-conformances (NCR) per product and you will compare them with other products range (or services). Sometimes, on screen, you see the NCR is high (be it major or minor) on the system (which require minor amendment in certain documentation) and you also see certain NCR is low.

Be careful, go further by 3rd level analysis (by cost - or - Quality Cost) You will find that the 'high NCR' may only cost you about RM1.00 or less!! Why? Because the NCR is about amending documentation - papers or perhaps 'online documentation'. But you'll be shocked to find that the 'lower NCR' are major defects on your product that may cost you MILLIONS although the NCR is only 1 -2. So be careful during an analysis especially when you're doing ISO 9000. And also, don't focus at the 'bad numbers' but also the 'good numbers' (conformity) - as the latter will help you in BRANDING yourself - how do you want your customers to view you....so don't forget your strengths as well (SWOT)

But at least you can learn two things :

a) An objective or goals or KRA may not be 'ACHIEVABLE' if properly justified, (but they should be MEASURABLE of course)
b) You must have a THOROUGH data analysis and find out 'what went wrong' before you make decision.

Hey..wait a sec...where's KPI?

Huh, don't you see? KPI + KRA = BALANCE SCORECARD!! Gotcha!! (That's why I highlighted Balance Scorecard in BOLD)

So don't worry guys, just learn Balance Scorecard and you will learn everything that I've said here now. I'm sure the YAB Prime Minister would agree with me...I'm sure a lot 'thinkers' are telling him 'this and that' and he says...NO WAY...make it simple not complex...so the KPI + KRA are born - one is input, the other is output.

What do you think NIK?

I think that everything I've mentioned here is KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT...tadaaaah

The End

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