Today, Knowledge Management today are not limited merely to : (A) 'knowing' or 'reading lots of books/scholarly articles' or (B) data mining, analysis, decision making, preventive actions, or (C) some Human Resources Management issue or (D) some ICT issue. Knowledge Management is about putting your knowledge, skills and competency into practice and most important IT WORKS! For you and your company or your business (Nik Zafri)

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Email: nikzafri@yahoo.com, nikzafri@gmail.com

Kelantanese, Alumni of Sultan Ismail College Kelantan (SICA), Diploma (Management), IT Competency Cert, Certified Written English Professional US. Has participated in many seminars/conferences (local/ international) in the capacity of trainer/lecturer and participant.

Affiliations :- Council Member of Gerson Lehrman Group NY, Institute of Quality Malaysia, Malaysian Institute of Management, Malaysian Occupational Safety and Health Professionals Association, Auditor ISO 9000 IRCAUK, Auditor OHSAS 18000 (SIRIM and STS) /EMS ISO 14000:2004 and Construction Quality Assessment System (CONQUAS, CIDB (Now BCA) Singapore),

* Possesses 26 years of experience/hands-on in the multi-modern management & technical disciplines (systems & methodologies) such as Knowledge Management (Hi-Impact Management/ICT Solutions), Quality (TQM/ISO), Safety Health Environment, Civil & Building (Construction), Manufacturing, Motivation & Team Building, HR, Marketing/Branding, Business Process Reengineering, Economy/Stock Market, Contracts/Project Management, Finance & Banking, etc. He was employed to international bluechips involving in national/international megaprojects such as Balfour Beatty Construction/Knight Piesold & Partners UK, MMI Insurance Group Australia, Hazama Corporation (Hazamagumi) Japan (with Mitsubishi Corporation, JA Jones US, MMCE and Ho-Hup) and Sunway Construction Berhad (The Sunway Group of Companies). Among major projects undertaken : Pergau Hydro Electric Project, KLCC Petronas Twin Towers, LRT Tunnelling, KLIA, Petronas Refineries Melaka, Putrajaya Government Complex, Sistem Lingkaran Lebuhraya Kajang (SILK), Mex Highway, KLIA1, KLIA2 etc. Once serviced SMPD Management Consultants as Associate Consultant cum Lecturer for Diploma in Management, Institute of Supervisory Management UK/SMPD JV. Currently – Associate/Visiting Consultants/Facilitators, Advisors for leading consulting firms (local and international) including project management. To name a few – Noma SWO Consult, Amiosh Resources, Timur West Consultant Sdn. Bhd., TIJ Consultants Group (Malaysia and Singapore) and many others.

* Ex-Resident Weekly Columnist of Utusan Malaysia (1995-1998) and have produced more than 100 articles related to ISO-9000– Management System and Documentation Models, TQM Strategic Management, Occupational Safety and Health (now OHSAS 18000) and Environmental Management Systems ISO 14000. His write-ups/experience has assisted many students/researchers alike in module developments based on competency or academics and completion of many theses. Once commended by the then Chief Secretary to the Government of Malaysia for his diligence in promoting and training the civil services (government sector) based on “Total Quality Management and Quality Management System ISO-9000 in Malaysian Civil Service – Paradigm Shift Scalar for Assessment System”

Among Nik Zafri’s clients : Adabi Consumer Industries Sdn. Bhd, (MRP II, Accounts/Credit Control) The HQ of Royal Customs and Excise Malaysia (ISO 9000), Veterinary Services Dept. Negeri Sembilan (ISO 9000), The Institution of Engineers Malaysia (Aspects of Project Management – KLCC construction), Corporate HQ of RHB (Peter Drucker's MBO/KRA), NEC Semiconductor - Klang Selangor (Productivity Management), Prime Minister’s Department Malaysia (ISO 9000), State Secretarial Office Negeri Sembilan (ISO 9000), Hidrological Department KL (ISO 9000), Asahi Kluang Johor(System Audit, Management/Supervisory Development), Tunku Mahmood (2) Primary School Kluang Johor (ISO 9000), Consortium PANZANA (HSSE 3rd Party Audit), Lecturer for Information Technology Training Centre (ITTC) – Authorised Training Center (ATC) – University of Technology Malaysia (UTM) Kluang Branch Johor, Kluang General Hospital Johor (Management/Supervision Development, Office Technology/Administration, ISO 9000 & Construction Management), Kahang Timur Secondary School Johor (ISO 9000), Sultan Abdul Jalil Secondary School Kluang Johor (Islamic Motivation and Team Building), Guocera Tiles Industries Kluang Johor (EMS ISO 14000), MNE Construction (M) Sdn. Bhd. Kota Tinggi Johor (ISO 9000 – Construction), UITM Shah Alam Selangor (Knowledge Management/Knowledge Based Economy /TQM), Telesystem Electronics/Digico Cable(ODM/OEM for Astro – ISO 9000), Sungai Long Industries Sdn. Bhd. (Bina Puri Group) - ISO 9000 Construction), Secura Security Printing Sdn. Bhd,(ISO 9000 – Security Printing) ROTOL AMS Bumi Sdn. Bhd & ROTOL Architectural Services Sdn. Bhd. (ROTOL Group) – ISO 9000 –Architecture, Bond M & E (KL) Sdn. Bhd. (ISO 9000 – Construction/M & E), Skyline Telco (M) Sdn. Bhd. (Knowledge Management),Technochase Sdn. Bhd JB (ISO 9000 – Construction), Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia (IKIM – ISO 9000 & Internal Audit Refresher), Shinryo/Steamline Consortium (Petronas/OGP Power Co-Generation Plant Melaka – Construction Management and Safety, Health, Environment), Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Negotiation Skills), Association for Retired Intelligence Operatives of Malaysia (Cyber Security – Arpa/NSFUsenet, Cobit, Till, ISO/IEC ISMS 27000 for Law/Enforcement/Military), T.Yamaichi Corp. (M) Sdn. Bhd. (EMS ISO 14000) LSB Manufacturing Solutions Sdn. Bhd., (Lean Scoreboard (including a full development of System-Software-Application - MSC Malaysia & Six Sigma) PJZ Marine Services Sdn. Bhd., (Safety Management Systems and Internal Audit based on International Marine Organization Standards) UNITAR/UNTEC (Degree in Accountacy – Career Path/Roadmap) Cobrain Holdings Sdn. Bhd.(Managing Construction Safety & Health), Speaker for International Finance & Management Strategy (Closed Conference), Pembinaan Jaya Zira Sdn. Bhd. (ISO 9001:2008-Internal Audit for Construction Industry & Overview of version 2015), Straits Consulting Engineers Sdn. Bhd. (Full Integrated Management System – ISO 9000, OHSAS 1800 and EMS ISO 14000 for Civl/Structural/Geotechnical Consulting), Malaysia Management & Science University (MSU – (Managing Business in an Organization), Innoseven Sdn. Bhd. (KVMRT Line 1 MSPR8 – Awareness and Internal Audit (Construction), ISO 9001:2008 and 2015 overview for the Construction Industry), Kemakmuran Sdn. Bhd. (KVMRT Line 1 - Signages/Wayfinding - Project Quality Plan and Construction Method Statement ), Amiosh Resources - (1) Lembaga Tabung Haji - Flood ERP (2) WNA Consultants - DID/JPS -Flood Risk Assessment and Management Plan - Prelim, Conceptual Design, Interim and Final Report etc. (3) Tunnel Fire Safety - Fire Risk Assessment Report - Design Fire Scenario), Safety, Health and Environmental Management Plans leading construction/property companies/corporations in Malaysia. Timur West Consulting (1) Business Methodology and System (2) Information Security Management Systems (ISMS) ISO/IEC 27001:2013 for Majlis Bandaraya Petaling Jaya ISMS/Audit/Risk/ITP Technical Team

* Has appeared for 10 consecutive series in “Good Morning Malaysia RTM TV1’ Corporate Talk Segment discussing on ISO 9000/14000 in various industries. For ICT, his inputs garnered from his expertise have successfully led to development of work-process e-enabling systems in the environments of intranet, portal and interactive web design especially for the construction and manufacturing. Some of the end products have won various competitions of innovativeness, quality, continual-improvements and construction industry award at national level. He has also in advisory capacity – involved in development and moderation of websites, portals and e-profiles for mainly corporate and private sectors, public figures etc. He is also one of the recipients for MOSTE Innovation for RFID use in Electronic Toll Collection in Malaysia.

Note :



Tuesday, June 30, 2015


Dari cermin kapalterbang,
aku menjengah ke bawah dan
tidak seorang pun kelihatan
tiada orang besar, tiada orang hebat,
tiada ego, tiada diskriminasi, 
tiada orang marah...
Di angkasalepas,
apabila aku lihat dari bumi
jelas ribuan bintang berkilauan,
dapat dilihat walau jutaan batu jauhnya
Manusia sekarang memilih
untuk menjadi KUMAN 
yang tak dapat dilihat pun
dari cermin kapalterbang
walau banyak sekalipun  
tetap tidak nampak
bertebaran di angkasa,
berkilauan indah
semakin banyak, semakin cantik.
Sombong, besar diri,
Rasa diri sudah cukup hebat
Sifat membeza sesama insan
semuanya itu hanyalah KUMAN semata-mata
yang mendekatinya
Jaga Maruah, Merendah diri,
terus belajar,
tiada beza antara kita
semuanya itu sifat BINTANG
yang bersinar
yang boleh dilihat dari bumi
untuk mencari jalan pulang...
(Nik Zafri)

Tuesday, June 23, 2015

Enormous Tubes Of Plasma Floating Above The Earth

Source : http://www.iflscience.com

Student Confirms That There Are Enormous Tubes Of Plasma Floating Above The Earth
June 3, 2015 | by Stephen Luntz

This is an artist's impression of tubular plasma structures in the Earth's magnetosphere, 600 kilometres above the ground. Credit: CAASTRO/Mats Bjorkland
(photo credit source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/

A 60-year-old theory about the structure of the magnetic fields that surround Earth has been confirmed directly for the first time. The lead author of the paper is an undergraduate student who invented a way to view the Earth's magnetosphere in three dimensions.
The sun emits a constant stream of charged particles that's supplemented by cosmic rays from sources such as supernovae. As these particles approach Earth, their path is altered by the Earth's magnetic field, which deflects some and funnels others towards the poles, leading to displays such as aurora.
This region, known as the magnetosphere, includes the ionosphere and plasmasphere as its inner layers. These distinctions aside, we don't know all that much about the structure of these regions.
A better understanding would be useful because the ionosphere interferes with satellite navigation systems and the images received by radio telescopes. During her honors project at the University of Sydney, Cleo Loi realized she could use the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) radio telescope to probe these regions in a way that had never been done before, leading to a paper in the journal Geophysical Research Letters
The MWA is a forerunner of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), soon to transform radio astronomy. It consists of 128 antennae spread over three kilometers (almost two miles). Loi suggested that by splitting the observations between those from the eastern and western ends of the array, she would achieve something equivalent to binocular vision, allowing us to see in three dimensions.
For the MWA's usual astronomical work, a three-kilometer baseline does not give the parallax required to see in-depth, but the situation is very different when we are looking close to the Earth.
Loi detected a series of high and low density plasma tubes connecting the ionosphere and plasmasphere running in parallel to the magnetic field. "We measured their position to be about 600 kilometres [373 miles] above the ground, in the upper ionosphere, and they appear to be continuing upwards into the plasmasphere. This is around where the neutral atmosphere ends, and we are transitioning to the plasma of outer space," Loi said. The tubes move slowly with time, so telescopes experience changing interference effects.
Loi told IFLScience that while some limited probing has been done on the ionosphere with other radio telescopes such as the Very Large Array, no one to her knowledge has applied parallax to the problem previously.

“People theorized something like this from observations of a type of very low frequency electromagnetic wave. We can detect lightning from another hemisphere and people concluded there must be plasma tubes guiding the signal,” says Loi. “It's a very indirect conclusion, and no one had much idea what these tubes were like.”

Loi says she was amazed at how many tubes the MWA's enormous 30° field revealed. “There are no plans to use the SKA for studying the ionosphere, but I am hoping with publicity about this work to change that,” she says.

Source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/

Seeing tubular plasma structures in inner layers of magnetosphere surrounding Earth
Date: June 1, 2015    Source:   University of Sydney


Astronomers have creatively used a radio telescope to see in 3-D, allowing them to detect the existence of tubular plasma structures in the inner layers of the magnetosphere surrounding the Earth. By creatively using a radio telescope to see in 3D, astronomers have detected the existence of tubular plasma structures in the inner layers of the magnetosphere surrounding Earth.

"For over 60 years, scientists believed these structures existed but by imaging them for the first time, we've provided visual evidence that they are really there," said Cleo Loi of the ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) and School of Physics at the University of Sydney in Australia.

Ms Loi is the lead author on this research, undertaken as part of her award-winning undergraduate thesis and recently published in Geophysical Research Letters. In collaboration with international colleagues, she identified the structures.

"The discovery of the structures is important because they cause unwanted signal distortions that could, as one example, affect our civilian and military satellite-based navigation systems. So we need to understand them," Ms Loi said.

The region of space around Earth occupied by its magnetic field, called the magnetosphere, is filled with plasma that is created by the atmosphere being ionised by sunlight.

The innermost layer of the magnetosphere is the ionosphere, and above that is the plasmasphere. They are embedded with a variety of strangely shaped plasma structures including, as has now been revealed, the tubes.

"We measured their position to be about 600 kilometres above the ground, in the upper ionosphere, and they appear to be continuing upwards into the plasmasphere. This is around where the neutral atmosphere ends, and we are transitioning to the plasma of outer space," explained Ms Loi.

Using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), a radio telescope located in the Western Australian desert, Ms Loi found that she could map large patches of the sky and even exploit the MWA's rapid snapshot capabilities to create a movie -- effectively capturing the real-time motions of the plasma.

"We saw a striking pattern in the sky where stripes of high-density plasma neatly alternated with stripes of low-density plasma. This pattern drifted slowly and aligned beautifully with the Earth's magnetic field lines, like aurorae," Ms Loi said.

"We realised we may be onto something big and things got even better when we invented a new way of using the MWA."

The MWA consists of 128 antenna 'tiles' spread over an area roughly three by three kilometres that work together as one instrument -- but by separating the signals from tiles in the east from the ones in the west, the astronomers gave the MWA the power to see in 3D.

"This is like turning the telescope into a pair of eyes, and by that we were able to probe the 3D nature of these structures and watch them move around," said Ms Loi.

"We were able to measure the spacing between them, their height above the ground and their steep inclination. This has never been possible before and is a very exciting new technique."

This ability adds yet another accolade to the MWA's name after it had already proven its worth as a powerful precursor instrument to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), and now the MWA's 3D vision has the potential to provide many more in-depth analyses of the formation of plasma structures.

"It is to Cleo's great credit that she not only discovered this but also convinced the rest of the scientific community. As an undergraduate student with no prior background in this, that is an impressive achievement," said Ms Loi's supervisor Dr Tara Murphy, also of CAASTRO and School of Physics at the University of Sydney.

"When they first saw the data, many of her senior collaborators thought the results were literally 'too good to be true' and that the observation process had somehow corrupted the findings, but over the next few months, Cleo managed to convince them that they were both real and scientifically interesting."

Tuesday, June 09, 2015

RM9bn Light Rail Transit Line 3 (LRT3) - All eyes for the next PDP

Excerpt from the Star

Group managing director Azmi Abdul Aziz said they had identified the corridors for land acquisition.

“We have allocated a certain amount for the acquisition but it is not part of the RM9bil project cost.

“The allocation will come from Prasarana,” he added.

LRT 3 will span 36km with 2km running underground across 25 stations from Bandar Utama to Johan Setia, Klang.

Construction is scheduled to begin in 2016 and will be completed by 2020.

The line is expected to connect the Western Corridor of the Klang Valley to Kuala Lumpur city centre – a route that is currently only being serviced by KTM Komuter.

Azmi also said they were planning to turn the station at Stadium Shah Alam into a main station and a major shopping hub.

“We are also looking at bringing the Klang KTM station closer to the LRT 3 line so transfers will be easier,” he added.

LRT 3 will be integrated with existing and future public transport networks at four stations including One Utama with MRT Sungai Buloh–Kajang Line, Station 3 with the Kelana Jaya Line, SIRIM with BRT Kuala Lumpur–Klang and Klang Town with KTM Komuter.


Project Delivery Partner (PDP) is now becoming a trendy concept in United Kingdom, Malaysia and some other countries especially in the management and construction of Rail Transit Projects. (Project Owners - Crossrail Ltd UK (Bechtel, Halcrow & Systra) MRT Corp Malaysia(MMC-Gamuda KVMRT)

Under the PDP model, the Project Owner passes the delivery risks (specifications, cost/project budget (all borned by PDP), time and quality) of the project to the appointed PDP.

This way, the Project Owner could reduce the risks of late completion and cost overrun. It is to ensure maximum spread via competitive bidding, equal and fair distribution of construction work packages. The Project Owner; however; will still maintain a certain degree of control on delivery,  supervising project progress, acquisitions of lands and award of tenders.

In the organizational relationship chart, the Project Owner will be on the top (advised by an Independent Consulting Engineers (ICE), followed by PDP,  the 3rd Layer is the Supervising Consultants (SC) and finally Work Package Contractors (WPC)

At one glance, it looks fine – as if the PDP is handling similar roles as 'Project Managers' or 'Project Management Consultant (PMC)' with Supervising Consultants to help them out especially on the Design. 

The Work Package Contractors are the 'Constructors' based on the ‘Conventional’ mode rather than the traditional ‘Design and Build’

What intrigues me; in practice; is that the PDP can also function as the lead contractor – in some cases; as if; they can hold two positions simultaneously – “the project managers” and “the contractor”. It crosses my mind of the possibility of ‘conflict of interest’ here – e.g. like in the case of "a certification body and an accreditation body ‘working under the same roof’.

Another issue is - as if there appear to be a ‘shared responsibility’ between the Project Owner, PDP and Supervising Consultants (SC) on issues of alignment options and review, preparations and submissions for the railway scheme, public display, land acquisition, engineering design, tender, construction and supervision, as well as testing and commissioning for safe railway operations.

In some way, there is also the potential of "overlapping duties and responsibilities" in the ‘Trilogy’ (Who to do ‘what’ actually). 

If I am right as a ‘civilian’, then some complications may arise:

a)      If the Project Owners passing all the ‘risks’ to PDP, would that include the ‘responsibility of owners’ spelled out in the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994/Construction Guidelines on Safety and Health?

b)      Should a PDP have the ‘mindset of Contractors’ in managing projects? Or should they should act as the 'Client’s (Project Owner’s) representatives' and be firm and stick to ‘managing/overseeing projects’ while the WPC will do the rest? (construction) Just for ‘impartiality’ sake…

c)       If a ‘Contractor’ is to be appointed to become the PDP – do they have enough experience and skills in Project Management in the past or they can be 'upgraded' there and then?

d)      Assuming PDP being a contractor in another capacity, would the PDP be allowed to construct a segment of the same project whilst managing the overall project in another capacity? If they do, then who will become the PDP and SC to them? Will that do justice for the WPC? 

e)      The SC is another group of professional engineers assuming the role to assist and advise the PDP mostly on technical matters such as Civil and Structure, Building and Mechanical/Electrical (etc) – e.g. related to design (and approval?), construction related drawings, load and integrity, WPC’s Inspection and Test,  Method Statement etc. (not to be mistaken with Independent Consulting Engineers who are with the Project Owners)

f)       The WPC; (a.k.a. Main Contractor) - in Malaysia – mostly are ‘G7’ and a ‘must-be’ ISO 9000 certificated contractor. The construction principles are usually based on their respective ‘Corporate HQ QMS’.  

    Would the PDP request the WPC to have another set of ‘customized site-based (project-specific)’ procedures and project quality plan (is it spelled out in the Contract?) or whatever that the WPC is using is sufficient? or PDP/SC will provide them with the right formats?

Another issue is the submission of Method Statement/Job Safety Analysis by the WPC – must the WPC hire a professional engineer just to do the Construction/Trade Method Statement to be submitted, reviewed by another Professional Engineer in SC and finally approved by PDP? Will that be at the cost of the WPC?

g)      If the PDP is a JV, why not the JV itself work towards the certification of ISO 9000 (and OHSAS 18000 + EMS ISO 14000) just for the duration of the mega project they are managing/overseeing. Or perhaps adopting a certified Integrated Management System (IMS) – rather than one JV partner is already certified separately as one entity and the other JV partner is also certified as another entity (definitely two different systems). Sometimes, this also potentially create some ‘confusion’ as well. If the JV itself is certified, it must be a QMS that is 'tailor-made' to the project itself.

Whatever the answers would be, the PDP is likely to be penalized in the end and potentially end up bearing a hefty cost should the project fails or late delivery (which I think the LAD will be imposed by the Project Owner and probably the PDP will probably imposes another LAD to WPC)

I would also like to suggest ‘some 2 sens’ worth of improvement - in order to avoid overlapping of duties (unless there is NO overlapping - then I'm really sorry), besides assuming the prevailing functions as the Project Owners, PDP, SC and WPC.

Why not counter-refer to the ‘good ol’ PWD 203A (Standard Form of Contract) where in this case – the Project Owners appoints PDP as the SO (Superintending Officers) and PDP appoints the SC to become SORs (Superintending Officers Representatives).

After all, PWD203A is ‘very clear’ on this issue – roles of SO, SORs and even the Contractor’s (WPC) obligations on the matter.

I am unsure if this suggestion can assist the PDP to have a clearer guidelines but I do know PWD203A are widely used by most construction consortiums in Malaysia and the guide has been proven in terms of its effectiveness. Or perhaps PDP should have their very own “PWD203A”.

Yes, my humble (non-professional) suggestions should be seen as opportunities for future continual improvement and not to be taken as 'criticisms'.

Sunday, June 07, 2015


Tekanan jiwa boleh melanda sesiapa sahaja tidak kira usia, bangsa dan keturunan.

Seseorang yang mengalami tekanan jiwa kadangkala perawakan luarannya seperti orang yang normal tetapi pandai menyembunyikan masalah jiwa yang sangat berat dalam hatinya.

Ada yang sampai menyangka masalah seperti ini akan ‘pergi begitu sahaja’.

Mengikut pengalaman saya, antara tanda-tanda tekanan jiwa ialah :

1) Terlalu kerap berbicara mengenai sesuatu kejayaan sendiri yang telah lama berlalu. Biasanya 'kisah kejayaan sendiri' ini terbit semasa seseorang itu mengalami kesempitan hidup.

Orang seperti ini akan ‘beralih’ dari satu kawan ke satu kawan yang lain – akhirnya kitaran cerita yang sama akan didengari berulang-kali oleh kawan-kawan yang pernah mendengar kisah berkenaan.

Seorang kawan yang baik biasanya akan berdiam diri kerana tidak mahu memalukan rakannya itu.

Bagi saya, ianya satu sikap yang kurang tepat. Wajarnya seorang rakan yang baik itulah yang perlu menegur secara ‘perlahan-lahan’ dan berperingkat-peringkat supaya rakannya yang terkena 'tekanan jiwa' itu sedar akan REALITI di sekelilingnya dan meneruskan kehidupan.

2) Telah berusaha keras tetapi gagal mencapai kejayaan yang diidam-idamkan – yang mungkin mampu mengubah kehidupannya.

Maka orang ini ada yang gagal keluar dari dunia kegagalannya atau tidak akan mengaku bahawa dia sudah gagal kerana masih menyangka dia akan berjaya.

Berlakulah ‘waiting’ game’ (penantian) dalam tempoh yang sangat panjang. Akhirnya orang ini akan memberitahu kawan-kawannya yang lain bahawa ‘dia telah berjaya’.

Sindrom yang mirip kepada kisah di atas ialah - manusia yang kecewa kerana gagal dalam mencapai cita-citanya kerana kesilapannya sendiri.

Manusia seperti ini tiada pendirian tetap – semuanya nampak  ‘tidak betul’ bagi mereka - tetapi hakikatnya mereka sendiri tidak ada matlamat hidup.

Apabila ada rakan mereka yang mula menunjukkan tanda kejayaan, mereka memberikan sejuta alasan yang menakutkan supaya rakan ini jauhkan diri dari kemenangan.

Manusia kecewa ini mempunyai sifat dengki (walaupun tidak diakuinya) dengan kejayaan mereka dan mahu rakan mereka 'jadi seperti mereka' - kecewa dan pemalas.

(Jika anda melihat ketam di dalam lubang pasir di tepi pantai, anda akan terlihat jika ada rakan ketamnya ingin keluar dari lubang pasir berkenaan, ketam di bawahnya akan menarik rakannya supaya tertimbus ke dalam lubang pasir berkenaan. Inilah analogi kepada manusia yang kecewa ini - tidak mahu rakan lain 'naik ke atas' dan menariknya kembali supaya tertimbus bersamanya) 

3) Kenangan lalu seperti dipukul, didera, dibuli atau lain-lain trauma yang menyakitkan. Tubuh badan yang dipukul, didera dan dibuli mungkin dapat dipulihkan dengan cepat tetapi apa yang lebih menyakitkan adalah perasaan dan hati mangsa berkenaan yang tidak dikendalikan dengan cara yang betul.

Tanda penyakit jiwa pada dirinya ialah antara lain : untuk 'menghilangkan trauma' berkenaan, dia akan ‘mencipta’ kisah lalu secara kontra bagi ‘menyedapkan’ hatinya – contohnya dialah yang sebenarnya memukul, membuli, mendera dll. (hakikatnya dia tidak mahu mengaku bahawa dialah sebenarnya yang dipukul, didera dan dibuli)

4) Terdapat unsur ‘rejection’ (penolakan, penafian) dalam sesuatu harapan atau permohonan. Ini biasanya berlaku bagi seseorang yang terlalu fanatik/taksub terhadap seseorang idolanya.

Dia akan ‘mencipta ilusi’ seolah-olah dia ada ‘hubungan yang akrab’ dengan idolanya itu. Lalu dia akan meyakinkan dirinya sendiri bahawa ‘idolanya itu adalah ‘perfect’ (sempurna) mengikut imaginasinya sendiri. Dia juga akan 'gembira' dapat ‘hidup dalam alam khayalan’ bersama idolanya.

Hinggalah pada suatu ketika, dia mendapati idolanya tidak seperti dia sangkakan atau idolanya tidak melayaninya (seperti dalam alam khayalannya), maka dia akan memberontak, memfitnah dan mengganggu idolanya itu.

Kes-kes seperti ini berlaku dalam salah faham mengenai sesuatu hubungan baik yang disangka suatu percintaan, minat terhadap seseorang artis yang berlebih-lebihan, terlalu taksub kepada seseorang pemimpin agama atau sesuatu ajaran atau taksub terhadap bomoh/dukun dll.

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