Brain Drain seems to be a hot topic in Malaysia. I'm not going into politics or some racial matters but facts and figures.
The Economic Transformation Programme came into the picture with Talent Corp formation to focus on facilitating initiatives to attract, nurture, engage and retain talent to support the human capital.
Disclaimer : I have no qualms against whatever is right for Malaysia to move towards 2020 and I write this article with FULL understanding of Talent Corp. and the need to call for Malaysian talents from outside to return.
However, the questions lingering in my mind have never been properly answered by anyone in charge but whenever I ask the "silent majority"* which being "sampled" from the group of 40 years old and above, ranging from local young CEOs, MDs, Directors to scholars, freelance professionals etc.
*Surprisingly, some are working together in this program and have received 'instructions from above' to participate.
Here are their questions :
a) What about local talents that have nostalgically returned to this country a long time ago? What will happen to them? Are they not good enough to compete with the newbies? (this is not MY question, this is THEIR question)
b) Will there be salary scale difference for the local talents (also with accredited foreign qualifications) who have been working so hard developing the country in their very own way IF the "Malaysian talents outside" are to return to the country to respond to this call?
c) Does this mean that the local talents with local accredited (MQA) universities/institution of higher learning qualifications including local competency training institution (MLVK) and workshops/trainings that have been accredited outside Malaysia are more inferior? That we have to get Malaysians from outside that have "better" qualifications, skills and knowledge?
I sometimes wonder the need for "ranking the local universities to others" (except for acquiring grants for R & D that I do not know about*) when MQA's assessment is more than enough and equivalent to British Accreditation Council.
* Universities set 'mechanisms' via these R & D Grants and NOT 'innovations' according to one dean of a faculty.
d) Has anyone been asking some of the so-called talents outside that the countries that they are so proud residing are also having major problems to even maintain their very own economy?* Do a poll and find out! No names and personal details should be given. Otherwise they won't be telling the truth!
*Quoting General (Retired) Bill Creech in his book "The Five Pillars of Total Quality Management" which goes something like this :
"If the US universities are so good, why is the US economy doing so bad?"
e) Has anyone been asking some of the so-called talents outside what do they REALLY feel about returning to Malaysia - now that they have a GOOD remuneration and unmatchable to what the Government is offering? Do a poll and find out! No names and personal details should be given. Otherwise, they won't be telling the truth!
f) Has anyone been asking some of the so-called talents outside what do they REALLY say about Malaysia to foreigners, how they talk proudly about other nation and not being ungrateful or not even "recalling" where they come from?
Some are even "having amnesia" pathetically attempting their level best NOT to tell where they come from - even using foreign slangs to avoid detection. What a joke! Even worse, some of them are requesting to become foreign citizen.
Then another question should be posed...What about EX-MALAYSIANS who are now official foreign citizens?
These are only some of the questions go unanswered till now.
Before you start to say anything, please be reminded that I am NOT against everyone outside as many of us here now are foreign graduates as well.
And I did saw MANY GOOD Malaysians outside saying this to me :
"Give the local talents another chance, we are fine over here and we will come back eventually"
I've noticed over the years the growing trend of staff especially from the civil service chasing for better qualifications by studying up to MBA and PhD. But again, do qualifications really help nowadays when there is no control imposed over it?
(so many private and government institutions of higher learning are being established with so many academic programmes being offered and with so many people are now madly chasing for higher qualifications thinking of future promotion? Some even dare to "bypass" JPA and using their own expenses to gain a higher qualification. I once asked them (when I was lecturing for a UK-Based program in 1997) :
Q : "Why do you come here?"
A : "This program is accredited by JPA"
Q : "Yes I know, that's the reason why I am standing in front of you now, this program is also accredited by LAN (now MQA)" Forgive me for asking - I like to know if you have been permitted by JPA or your superiors to participate in this course?"
A : "No, but I will give them a copy of the qualification and hope to be promoted - either salary wise or designation wise"
Q : "I'm curious...what if they say this to you "I didn't ask you to do this?"
A : (pause for a while...) "What should I do?"
Q : "Either you ask for their permission now, or your answer should be "I'm looking for another job". And most importantly, I don't want you to start blaming me or this company or this course for not getting you a promotion!
(followed by laughter and the guy nodded his head in agreement...anyway, I followed up with him after he graduated with Honours, he told me that whatever I've predicted DID happened and he's now working as a General Manager for a private company (retired early)
1) When people come and tell me that we are lacking of English Language Teachers, I noticed that it is the 'senior generation of the English Medium or of Foreign Educated' stood up to answer the call but nobody seems to bother.
2) When people come and tell me "What kind of right approach to teach English for working people" I answered : "Teach them according to their expertise, so you need people from the field itself coupled with adequate fluency in English to teach working people...
for example, Civil Engineers, what do they need really? Take checklist or report writing for example, you need to teach them to understand how to describe words like "workmanship", "supervision" etc. Or you need to ask them question of what do they need from this course and you should be answering "in their lingo" by giving them samples of report which they can immediately use after taking the course. So, killing two birds with one stone - you teach them English and you teach them civil engineering "Report Writing"
3) When people come to me and start underestimating "SKM Level 3 to 5 (MLVK)" (thinking that it is only a 'cert') and started comparing with their Degree.
I told them this :
"Did you know that the "SKM Level 5" is a lot better than your Engineering Degree?
Quoting OSH regulations - phrase "a competent person" let's say "Welding and Fitting" - you should counter refer to any "Welding Codes of Practice" and you will find that he is much more AUTHORIZED to attend to "Welding and Fitting" rather than you M & E Degree.
The M & E graduate got more interested and finally I told him this :
"Bitter it may sound but we have different too many ministries to handle different trades. Academic is MOE's and MHL's turfs but SKILL and COMPETENCY are MHR's "babies"!
Learning to pass exam is DIFFERENT than learning how to work! But passing exam is the foundation and learning how to work is the next level which have not been properly introduced in our country. That's why employers keep giving you excuses "You don't have working experience - so you don't get the job"
I'm telling the universities or any other institution of higher learning be it private or government "Don't give guarantee to students or parents that they will get a good job once they have graduated"
There are few universities been integrating both academic and skills/competencies, take for example Defence University of Malaysia, I've visited them, talked to the ex-deputy vice chancellor and very impressed with the results!"
I'm also really shocked to learn ISO 9000 has been "legalized" (or rather "politicized") when it is only an international standard (a guide NOT gospel) And every other party started to emerge in the "power play"...I can name few "training authorities" that have proudly instructing me that "you consultants must be registered"
They said to me : "You don't register with us, you will not be recognized"
I asked them back : "Can you give me a project if I am to be registered with you?"
They replied : "No, No, No, we cannot give you warranty that we will award you with any project"
I replied : "So you want my money but you don't want to give yours"
They vetoed : "This is regulations"
I said in my heart : "yeah..you're HIDING behind regulations" and you're telling me that my "foreign chartered membership" is now invalid?
So I took a peek into "their system" that was displayed by a dismayed client and I quickly asked the client :
"Where's the method statement (according to the trades)...say "earthworks, or "piling" etc" These are SOPs and WIs, these are meant for factories and manufacturing, boss - NOT CONSTRUCTION"
"Where's the inspection and test plan, how do customize the manual for construction industry according to the contract mode - "Design & Build, Turnkey etc."? (Permissible Exclusion on Design & Development responsibilities)
"Where's your PQP?" and showed them clauses from the Main Contract (also CLIENT's requirements) requiring sample submission as well.
Where's your sample schedule (they did show but I told them "This is MSP not Primavera..have you been meeting the "construction PMC" lately? or just simply 'copy and paste?'
OHSAS 18000 (Standard for Occupational Safety and Health) has a disclaimer : "Compliance to this standard shall not provide immunity to the law"
Hahaha - and there is not even the word "ISO" in front OHSAS 18000 unlike EMS ISO 14000 and ISO 9000. (Bureaucracy is in progress)
I also noticed ICT companies with "M*C status" are "closing shop" one after another. Many of them told me that the grant is too low, we have no capital and GOD - we have to through so much levels in order to get "more money".
But ironically, those without the "status" are really "prosperous" (We don't need any status or certifications to be rich)
What's the point of having "pre-seed grants" or "level by level grants" or asking ex-participants to participate in any of related programs or having "incubation" courses in hotels with so many batches around and so-called "consultants" and only 1 - 2 will successfully get the "grant" after going into a 'reality show' kind of "pitching contest"?
I recalled seeing one of the participants who talks SO PROUDLY as if he is "Mr. Know Everything" but his business is doing SO BADLY...hmmm "typical"
I like to close this article by quoting a Chinese CEO of a 'very large company' saying this to me:
"How many people with "good qualifications" are known being involved in white or blue collar crimes? I think Nik, it's not so much about qualifications...it's the attitude, experience, competency and most important HONESTY"
I would rather look for honest people (I know when I see one) to take care of my money and organization and I'm willing to train such people to understand what I need, I don't like people who are too "smart" as they are the ones who tend to play tricks with figures. Don't quote me for that"
:-) Nik Zafri: Sorry, I have to quote your very good statement but I won't mention your name
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BIODATA - NIK ZAFRI
* Kelantanese, Alumni of Sultan Ismail College Kelantan (SICA), Diploma (Management), IT Competency Cert, Certified Written English Professional US. Has participated in many seminars/conferences(local/international) in the capacity of trainer/lecturer and participant. Affiliations :- Council Member of Gerson Lehrman Group NY, Institute of Quality Malaysia, Malaysian Institute of Management, Malaysian Occupational Safety and Health Professionals Association, Auditor ISO 9000 IRCAUK, Auditor OHSAS 18000 (SIRIM and STS) /EMS ISO 14000:2004 and Construction Quality Assessment System (CONQUAS, CIDB (Now BCA) Singapore)
* Possesses 20 years experience/hands-on in the multi-modern management & technical disciplines (systems & methodologies) such as Knowledge Management (Hi-Impact Management/ICT Solutions), Quality (TQM/ISO), Safety Health Environment, Civil & Building (Construction), Manufacturing, Motivation & Team Building, HR, Marketing/Branding, Business Process Reengineering, Economy/Stock Market, Contracts/Project Management, Finance & Banking, etc. He was employed to international bluechips involving in national/international megaprojects such as Balfour Beatty Construction/Knight Piesold & Partners UK, MMI Insurance Group Australia, Hazama Corporation (Hazamagumi) Japan (with Mitsubishi Corporation, JA Jones US and Ho-Hup) and Sunway Construction Berhad (The Sunway Group of Companies). Among major projects undertaken : Pergau Hydro Electric Project, KLCC Petronas Twin Towers, LRT Tunnelling, KLIA, Petronas Refineries Melaka, Putrajaya Government Complex, Sistem Lingkaran Lebuhraya Kajang (SILK) etc. Once serviced SMPD Management Consultants as Associate Consultant cum Lecturer for Diploma in Management, Institute of Supervisory Management UK/SMPD JV. Currently – Associate/Visiting Consultants/Facilitators, Advisors for leading consulting firms (local and international) including project management. To name a few – TIJ Consultants Group (Malaysia and Singapore), LSB Manufacturing Solutions Sdn. Bhd. and many others.
* Ex-Resident Weekly Columnist of Utusan Malaysia (1995-1998) and have produced more than 100 articles related to ISO-9000– Management System and Documentation Models, TQM Strategic Management, Occupational Safety and Health (now OHSAS 18000) and Environmental Management Systems ISO 14000. His write-ups/experience has assisted many students/researchers alike in module developments based on competency or academics and completion of many theses. Once commended by the then Chief Secretary to the Government of Malaysia for his diligence in promoting and training the civil services (government sector) based on “Total Quality Management and Quality Management System ISO-9000 in Malaysian Civil Service – Paradigm Shift Scalar for Assessment System”
Among Nik Zafri’s clients were Adabi Consumer Industries Sdn. Bhd, The HQ of Royal Customs and Excise Malaysia, Veterinary Services Dept. Negeri Sembilan, The Institution of Engineers Malaysia, Corporate HQ of RHB, NEC Semiconductor - Klang Selangor, Prime Minister’s Department Malaysia, State Secretarial Office Negeri Sembilan, Hidrological Department KL, Asahi Kluang Johor, Tunku Mahmood (2) Primary School Kluang Johor, Consortium PANZANA, Information Technology Training Centre (ITTC) – Authorised Training Center (ATC) – University of Technology Malaysia (UTM) Kluang Branch Johor, Kluang General Hospital Johor, Kahang Timur Secondary School Johor, Sultan Abdul Jalil Secondary School Kluang Johor, Guocera Tiles Industries Kluang Johor, MNE Construction (M) Sdn. Bhd. Kota Tinggi Johor, UITM Shah Alam Selangor, Telesystem Electronics/Digico Cable (ODM/OEM for Astro), Sungai Long Industries Sdn. Bhd. (Bina Puri Group), Secura Security Printing Sdn. Bhd, ROTOL AMS Bumi Sdn. Bhd & ROTOL Architectural Services Sdn. Bhd. (ROTOL Group), Bond M & E (KL) Sdn. Bhd., Skyline Telco (M) Sdn. Bhd.,Technochase Sdn. Bhd JB, Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia (IKIM), Shinryo/Steamline Consortium (Petronas/OGP Power Co-Generation Plant Melaka), Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Association for Retired Intelligence Operatives of Malaysia, T.Yamaichi Corp. (M) Sdn. Bhd.LSB Manufacturing Solutions Sdn. Bhd., PJZ Marine Services Sdn. Bhd., UNITAR/UNTEC (Degree in Accountacy) Cobrain Holdings Sdn. Bhd. (Managing Construction Safety & Health), Speaker for International Finance & Management Strategy (Closed Conference), Pembinaan Jaya Zira Sdn. Bhd. (ISO 9001:2008-Internal Audit for Construction Industry), Straits Consulting Engineers Sdn. Bhd. (C & S, Geotech), Malaysia Management & Science University (MSU), Innoseven Sdn. Bhd. (KVMRT MSPR8 - Internal Audit (Construction) & Awareness Workshop ISO 9001:2015 for the Construction Industry, Amiosh Resources - Lembaga Tabung Haji - Flood ERP, Amiosh Resources - Flood Risk Assessment and Management Plan - Prelim, Conceptual Design and Final Report etc.
* Has appeared for 10 consecutive series in “Good Morning Malaysia RTM TV1’ Corporate Talk Segment discussing on ISO 9000/14000 in various industries. For ICT, his inputs garnered from his expertise have successfully led to development of work-process e-enabling systems in the environments of intranet, portal and interactive web design especially for the construction and manufacturing. Some of the end products have won various competitions of innovativeness, quality, continual-improvements and construction industry award at national level. He has also in advisory capacity – involved in development and moderation of websites, portals and e-profiles for mainly corporate and private sectors, public figures etc.
Risk Based Thinking ISO 9001:2015
(The answers provided are not to be deemed as solutions but basic guidelines, please contact me for further details of consultancy and training)
Q : Do I issue NCR for Risk Identification/Assessment? (i.e. HIRARC)
A : Risk Identification/Asessment and even HIRARC itself is an assessment NOT an audit/inspection. Please do not confuse the two. When we talk about risk, the word "proactive" must always come into the picture. Risk Based Thinking in the new ISO 9001:2015 is previously known as "Preventive Action" but spoken in a wider sense.
If you are using HIRARC, then there are "marks" to denote severity and likelihood of the risk being identified. You can note suggestion or instruction for improvement based on your findings and discuss in your Management Review.
Q : I am a newbie in Risk Management, where to start on Risk Based Thinking during upgrading from the old version?
A: ISO 9001:2015 do not make it "a must" to have a full risk management. Unless it's already part of your core business process (especially planning), e.g. using HIRARC, then that's different. Look at your core business process and identify/ brainstorm the possible risk associated with every process where applicable. Using the Risk Register would be a good idea.
The reason why "Risk Based Thinking" is introduced into ISO 9001:2015 is because to reduce non-conformance and customer complaints, to justify clearly (substantiated with evidence) the Department/Unit Objectives, KPI/KRA, Balance Scorecard etc. (not simply pick up a figure from 'the sky')
Saturday, April 30, 2011
Brain Drain seems to be a hot topic in Malaysia. I'm not going into politics or some racial matters but facts and figures.
Tuesday, April 19, 2011
(FOR THE 1ST TIME EVER IN 15 YEARS, PART OF MY ISO 9000 PROPOSAL (CONSTRUCTION) IS REVEALED!!)
For ISO 9001:2008 Consultants Only
This sample has been tailored made for construction/building and civil engineering.
Initial Assessment/ Evaluation (1) to predetermine: -
a. Scope of Registration & Application
b. Improvement of Existing Elements/Criterions if any
c. Additional Elements/ Criterions as necessary or permissible exclusion if any
Preparation and Presentation of findings to the Client.
(1)This is not an audit activity.
(1) Methods Used :-
Review documentation based on construction industry, sampling basis, conversation with related staff and observing consistency of physical activities at various places of work.
QMS ISO 9001:2008 Awareness Workshop - Theme : Managing Quality in Construction (2)
(2) (both general awareness and customized to client’s nature of industry, contract mode (Design & Build? Turnkey? Conventional?)
Workshop’s detailed report/ assessment to the Client.
(2) Solution-based – client will know the next course action after the training.
Client shall provide feedback forms and provide Certificates of Participation (which format will be forwarded by the consultant).
Typical Workshop Contents
Training Objectives, 8 Management Principles and 5 Main Clauses and interrelationships, Various Tools, Quality Cost etc. etc. + Application to Client’s industry
PHASE TWO – IMPLEMENTATION (CRITICAL)
Assisting System Structuring(3), Quality Document Development and (4) Review
(3) Typical System Structuring (besides the remarks) usually involve consistency with the standard requirements (not limited to the following):
· QMS Workshop
· Customer-Focus – Communication & Survey.
· Resource Management including org. chart, JD, competency & TNA
· QMS Manual/Plan/Procedural/Method Statement and or Work Instructions/I & TP (Inspection & Test Plan), sequencing and format/numbering + records management (Forms & Checklists)
· Online Documentation Interface if Any
· Measurement of Department Objectives and Capturing and Analysis of Data
· Supervision/Inspection & Supplier/ Subcontractor Management/Assessment
· Effectiveness vs. Compliance, Plan-Do-Check-Act PDCA and Continual Improvement
Internal Quality Auditing Course(5)
(5) Among Critical Issues to be highlighted :-
a. Effectivess/Understanding vs. Compliance.
b. Traceability to the source.
c. Determining of Non-Conformance
d. Correction and Corrective Action (CA)
e. Preventive Action
f. Audit Scheduling and Reporting
h. Assessment vs Audit – Judgement vs. Evidence.
i. Auditors Conduct.
j. Inspection vs Audit
Workshop’s detailed report/ assessment to the Client.
(5) Based on IRCA’s and IQA’s modules.
Typically covering :-
Requirements of ISO 19011:2000 and ISO 9001:2008.
The last day shall be allocated for a ‘mock adequacy and compliance audit’ conducted by the client’s IQA team.
Client shall provide feedback forms and Certificates of Participation/ Successful Completion.
PHASE THREE - REVIEW
Monitoring Internal Quality Auditing Activities (IQA) (6)
Management Review Meeting (MRM) (7)
(7) If invited by the Client, Consultant may attend the MRM only as an observer. If otherwise, Consultant will need a copy of the MRM minutes to evaluate effectiveness and compliance.
In both cases, Consultant shall provide the MRM evaluation to the Client.
(6) Monitoring of NCR, CAR, Reporting, Follow Up, Verification.
(7) Monitoring MRM Inputs and Outputs including :
· IQA results
· Customer feedback
· Process performance and product conformity
· Status of preventive and corrective actions
· Changes affecting QMS
· Continual Improvement
· Resource Management
Independent Mock Adequacy and Compliance Audit(8)
Preparation and Presentation of findings to the Client.
(8) Full system audit – Verify adequacy of QMS documentation, data & records based on random plant and office activities, sampling basis, and interview related staff.
Despite Consultant may issue NCR(s) and CAR(s) but this audit shall not form part of the Client’s QMS and/or certification benchmarks.
Consultant’s NCR and CAR shall only be taken as independent opinions and as suggestions to further improve the client’s system.
PHASE FOUR - CERTIFICATION
Assisting the Client on Certification Arrangements(9)
Final Briefing on Certification Audit(10)
(9) Coordinate with QMR on communication with certification body.
(10) DOs and DONTs during certification audit.
Consultant shall not be present during the adequacy/compliance audit (certification audit) but shall follow up on the results of such audit including NCR/CAR issued.
Monday, April 18, 2011
On the government procedure : You can click here as a sample:
Please take into account EIA from DOE
I like to thank MQA Tech and Topmine for their expertise and assistance for their inputs.
What I'm going to focus is on the typical capabilities and what the authorities are really looking for. Here's a sample :
On the company :
What is the typical process involved in iron ore? Here are some hints :
i. The company can conduct mining prospects for their customers, and undertake the appropriate development stages to bring mines into operation:
Exploration, Feasibility studies, Design and construction, Project management, Mine planning and scheduling, Infrastructure and mine-site establishment, Pre-stripping
ii. The company must have resources and expertise for each step of the mining production cycle:
Drilling and blasting, Excavation, Loading and hauling, De-watering, Ground support, Mobile plant operation and maintenance
iii. The company is experienced in the design, construction, project management and operation of processing plant and transport infrastructure at each activity level:
Washing, Crushing and screening, Blending, Concentrating, Process plant operation and maintenance, Sampling and product analysis, Ship loading
iv. The company are well connected to a worldwide network of buyers, in most typical Asian cases - major Chinese commodity consumers, and we provide shipping logistic requirement to deliver products to their final destinations.
Logistic services, Shipping chartering, Port authority approvals, Marketing
Environmental and Safety Measures
As a corporate responsible citizen, the mining operation shall adopt adequate pollution control and safety measures in running the mine according to International Standards and Codes of Practice i.e.EMS 14000 and OHSAS 18000 etc. The following is a typical practice :
Impact Related to Mining Operation
The most significant environment issues related to any mining project are found to be related to mine effluent water discharge into the nearby river. However, with the implementation of sufficient tailing pond systems it is envisaged that the mine effluent water will not be a problem to the environment.
Water quality monitory scheme will determine whether the proposed remedial measures are effective in controlling the environmental issues.
Upgrading and Maintenance of Access Road
Regular maintenance includes patching up potholes, minor grading and further resurfacing shall be undertaken for the access/haulage road on a regular basis. This includes sprinkling of water reduce dust emission. A washing bay system will also be implemented to clean lorries before they leave the mine site.
The proposed mining scheme shall employ an environmental friendly waste disposal system. The waste disposal system will be described in the following sections.
Solid Waste Disposal
Solid wastes are not expected to cause any major problems. Wastes generated are basically garbage from the office. Scraps from the operation will be collected and sold to scrap dealers.
Comprehensive measures will be adopted to control and minimize dust emissions:·
Generators with compressors will be housed with noise shields and air compressors within enclosed buildings. Proper maintenance of the vehicles will also reduce noise pollution. Screening of the site with earth bunds help to reduce noise generation and dust.
Rehabilitation and Abandonment
Planned and orderly removal and disposal of various plants, structures, and facilities shall be required under the unforeseen event of abandonment.
Necessary restoration or rehabilitation plans for any Project site after the cessation of Project operation are also essential.
Rehabilitation plan will be carried out progressively to the allowable extent that will not hinder the mining operation. Small part of the mined out are will be filled and levelled to its original ground condition and shrub plants and tree seedlings will be planted on the levelled area. Any project in short term in nature, which means the treatment plant shall be dismantled and transported out of the project area after the iron ore reserves has been exhausted. Based on experience, the total environmental disturbance caused by any project is minimal, and decreases as the areas concerned are returned to its natural form.
The disturbed area shall be cleared and cleaned from all debris and waste products. The balance reduced material shall be disposed off at a safe and approved dump area.
Remedial measures in the form of restoration and rehabilitation of the area are indeed necessary to be initiated in order to prepare the area for future use. Incorporation of these measures into the planning of the mine developments is therefore vital. The mine management has therefore planned to incorporate the element of reclamation and restoration process into their overall long-term plan of the mine. In short, the restoration is being carried out progressively and concurrently with the mining operation itself. As rehabilitation works are to be carried out in a progressive manner in tandem with the ongoing mining operation. Major part of rehabilitation costs will be absorbed by the mine operation costs.
REFERENCE OF CODES OF PRACTICE
MS ISO 2597-1 : 2002 - Iron ores - Determination of total iron content - Part 1: Titrimetric method after tin(II) chloride reduction. This Malaysian Standard specifies a titrimetric method for the determination of the total iron content of iron ores using potassium dichromate after reduction of the trivalent iron by tin(II) chloride.
MS ISO 7764 : 2002 - Iron ores - Preparation of predried test samples for chemical analysis. This Malaysian Standard specifies a method for the preparation of predried test samples of natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates, including sinter products, which are to be used for the determination of analytical values of constituents on a dry basis.
MS ISO 9035 : 2002 - Iron ores - Determination of acid-soluble iron(II) content - Titrimetric method. This Malaysian Standard specifies a method for the determination of iron(II) content in natural and processed iron ores containing from 1 % to 25 % acid-soluble iron(II) and only traces of metallic iron.
MS ISO 2596 : 2003 Iron ores - Determination of hygroscopic moisture in analytical samples - Gravimetric and Karl Fisher methods. This Malaysian Standard specifies the following two methods for the determination of 0.05 % (m/m) to 6 % (m/m) of hygroscopic moisture content in test samples of natural or processed iron ores:
- Method 1 - Gravimetric method;
- Method 2 - Karl Fischer method.
Either method 1 or method 2 is used where the analytical value of the constituent to be calculated to a dry sample basis is higher than 10 % (m/m) in the following types of ores:
a) processed ores containing metallic iron (direct reduced iron);
b) natural or processed ores in which the sulfur content is higher than 0.2 % (m/m);
c) natural or processed ores in which the content of combined water is higher than 2.5 % (m/m).
The result from the determination of hygroscopic moisture using this Malaysian Standard is not reported as part of the analysis of an ore sample.
1. Where the reportable hygroscopic moisture content of a commercial consignment of ores is required, the procedure in ISO 3087:1987, Iron ores-Determination of moisture content of a consignment is used.
2. With natural or processed ores outside the field of application specified in a) or b) or c), a determination of a constituent at any level of concentration can be conducted using a predried test sample prepared as specified in ISO 7764:1985, Iron ores-Preparation of predried test samples for chemical analysis.
MS ISO 2598-1 : 2002 - Iron ores - Determination of silicon content - Part 1: Gravimetric methods. This Malaysian Standard specifies two gravimetric methods for the determination of the silicon content of iron ores. These methods are applicable, with certain limitations, to silicon contents between 1% (m/m) and 15% (m/m) in natural iron ores, iron ore concentrates and agglomerates, including sinter products.
MS ISO 2598-2 : 2002 - Iron ores - Determination of silicon content - Part 2: Reduced molybdosilicate spectrophotometric method. This Malaysian Standard specifies a reduced molybdosilicate spectrophorometric method for the determination of the silicon content of iron ores. This method is applicable to silicon contents between 0.1% (m/m) and 5.0% (m/m) in natural iron ores, iron ore concentrates and agglomerates, including sinter products, especially for ores containing fluorine.
MS ISO 2599 : 2004 - Iron ores – Determination of phosphorus content – Titrimetric method. This standard specifies a titrimetric method for the determination of phosphorus content of iron ores, using hexaammonium heptamolybdate (ammonium molybdate). This method is applicable to a concentration range of 0.10 to 5.0% (m/m) of phosphorus in natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates including sinter products.
MS ISO 3082 : 2002 - Iron ores - Sampling and sample preparation procedures. This Malaysian Standard gives:
a) the underlying theory,
b) the basic principles for sampling and preparation of samples,
c) the basic requirements for the design, installation and operation of sampling systems for mechanical sampling, manual sampling and preparation of samples taken from a lot under transfer to determine the chemical composition, moisture content and size distribution of the lot. Sampling and sample preparation procedures for physical testing are specified in ISO 10836.
MS ISO 3084 : 2002 : Iron ores - Experimental methods for evaluation of quality. This Malaysian Standard specifies experimental methods for the evaluation of quality variation of iron ores for each type of iron ore being traded and for each handling plant. Two distinct approaches are specified. The first is to analyse interleaved samples composed of a number of paired increments taken and combined alternately following stratified sampling or systematic sampling as specified in ISO 3082. The second is to collect and analyse individual increments and then to analyse the data using variograhic methods.
MS ISO 3085 : 2002 : Iron ores - Experimental methods for checking the precision of sampling. This Malaysian Standard specifies experimental methods for checking the precision of sampling of iron ores being carried out in accordance with the methods specified in ISO 3081 or ISO 3082.
MS ISO 3086 : 2002 - Iron ores - Determination of the moisture content of a lot. This Malaysian Standard specifies experimental methods for checking the bias of the sampling of iron ores, when the sampling is carried out in accordance with the methods specified in MS ISO 3081 or MS ISO 3082, having as reference a stopped-belt sampling method according to MS ISO 3081.
MS ISO 3087 : 2002 - Iron ores - Determination of bulk density. This Malaysian Standard specifies two methods for measuring the bulk density of natural and processed iron ores.
Method 1 is applicable to iron ores having a maximum particle size of 40 mm or smaller.
Method 2 is applicable to iron ores having any maximum particle size.
MS ISO 3886 : 2004 - Iron ores – Determination of manganese content – Periodate spectrophotometric method. This standard specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of manganese content of iron ores. This method is applicable to a concentration range of 0.02 to 8.0% (m/m) of manganese in natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates including sinter products.
MS ISO 4687-1 : 2004 - Iron ores – Determination of phosphorus content – Part 1 : Molybdenum blue spectrophotometric method. This standard specifies a molybdenum blue spectrophotomettric method for the determination of phosphorus content of iron ores. This method is applicable to phosphorus content between 0.003 to 2.0% (m/m) in natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates including sinter products. The presence of arsenic, barium or titanium does not affect the result.
MS ISO 4688-1 : 2004 - Iron ores – Determination of aluminium content – Part 1 : Flame atomic spectrometric method. This standard specifies a flame atomic spectrometric method for the determination of aluminium content of iron ores. This method is applicable to a concentration range of 0.1 to 5.0% (m/m) aluminium in natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates including sinter products.
MS ISO 4689 : 2004 - Iron ores – Determination of sulfur content – Barium sulfate gravimetric method
This standard specifies a barium sulfate gravimetric method for the determination of sulfur content of iron ores. This method is applicable to a concentration range of 0.01 to 1.0% (m/m) sulfur in natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates including sinter products.
MS ISO 4690 : 2004 - Iron ores – Determination of sulfur content – Combustion method - This standard specifies a combustion method for the determination of sulfur content of iron ores. This method is applicable to a concentration range of 0.002 to 0.25% (m/m) sulfur in natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates including sinter products. The results are not affected by the presence of fluoride.
MS ISO 4691 : 2004 - Iron ores - Determination of titanium content – Diantipyrylmethane spectrophotometric method. This standard specifies a spectrophotometric method using diantipyrylmethane for the determination of titanium content of iron ores. This method is applicable to a concentration range of 0.01 to 6.0% (m/m) of titanium in natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates including sinter products.
MS ISO 4693 : 2004 - Iron ores – Determination of copper content – Flame atomic absorption spectrometric method. This standard specifies a flame atomic absorption spectrometric method for the determination of copper content of iron ores. This method is applicable to a concentration of 0.003 to 1.0% (m/m) of copper in natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates including sinter products.
MS ISO 4701 : 2002 - Iron ores - Determination of size distribution by sieving. This Malaysian Standard specifies the methods to be employed for determination of size distributions by sieving of iron ore, utilizing sieves having aperture sizes of 36 mm or larger.
MS ISO 6467 : 2004 - Ferrovanadium - Determination of vanadium content - Potentiometric method. This standard specifies a potentiometric method for the determionation of vanadium content for ferrovanadium. The method applies to alloys having a vanadium content less than or equal to 85 % (m/m).
MS ISO 6830 : 2004 - Iron ores – Determination of aluminium content – EDTA titrimetic method
This standard specifies a titrimetric method using EDTA for the determination of aluminium content of iron ores. This method is applicable to a concentration range of 0.25 to 5.0% (m/m) aluminium in natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates including sinter products.
MS ISO 7834 : 2004 - Iron ores – Determination of arsenic content – Molybdenum blue spectrophotometric method. This standard specifies a molybdenum blue spectrophotometric method for the determination of arsenic content in iron ores. This method is applicable to a concentration range of 0.0001 to 0.1% (m/m) of arsenic in natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates including sinter products.
MS ISO 9516-1 : 2004 - Iron ores – Determination of various elements by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry – Part 1 : Comprehensive procedure
This standard sets out a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorencence procedure for the determination of iron, silicon, calcium, manganese, aluminium, titanium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, pottasium, tin, vanadium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, lead and barium in iron ores. The method has been designed to cope with iron ores having high ignition losses. The method is applicable to iron ores regardless of mineralogical type. The determination of total iron content cannot be used for referee purposes.
MS ISO 9682-1 : 2004 - Iron ores – Determination of manganese content – Flame atomic absorption method. This standard specifies a flame atomic absorption method for the determination of manganese content of iron ores. This method is applicable to a concentration range of 0.01 to 3.0% (m/m) of manganese in natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates including sinter products.
MS ISO 11534 : 2004 - Iron ores – Determination of tin content – Flame atomic absorption spectrometric method. This standard specifies a flame atomic absorption spectrometric method for the determination of tin content of iron ores. This method is applicable to a concentration range of 0.001 to 0.015% (m/m) tin in natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates including sinter products
MS ISO 13310 : 2004 - Iron ores – Determination of zinc content – Flame atomic absorption spectrometric method. This standard specifies a flame atomic absorption spectrometric method for the determination of zinc content of iron ores. This method is applicable to a concentration of 0.003 to 1.0% (m/m) of zinc in natural iron ores, and iron ore concentrates and agglomerates including sinter products.
MS ISO 15967 : 2004 - Direct reduced iron - Determination of tumble strength of hot iron briquetted iron (HBI) This standard specifies a method for the determination of the tumble strength of hot briquetted (HBI).